Baltikums frihet ett bevis på att Nato fungerar

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I år är det 30 år sedan Estland, Lettland och Litauen blev fria länder. I dag är de medlemmar i Nato och i EU, tryggt förankrade i ett stabilt och demokratiskt Europa.

Detta var aldrig en självklar utveckling, utan byggde på många enskilda personers mod och vilja att inte ge upp. Sverige var aldrig någon drivande eller stödjande kraft när det gällde balternas frihet, utan hävdade i stället anpassningens linje. Samtidigt var det sovjetiska förtrycket hårt, skoningslöst och brutalt. Hundratusentals balter deporterades till Sibirien.

Så sent som ett drygt år innan länderna blev fria menade Sveriges statsminister Ingvar Carlsson att de inte alls var ockuperade. Socialdemokraternas Pierre Schori hävdade att de inte alls ville ha någon självständighet, bara mer kulturellt oberoende. Utrikesminister Sten Andersson manade de baltiska frihetsrörelserna att sitta still i båten och inte kräva självständighet.

När jag några år innan frigörelsen i en riksdagsdebatt hävdade att Sverige borde stödja balternas frihetskamp anklagades jag av Socialdemokraternas ledande företrädare för att tillhöra den extrema tokhögern. Kraven på fria val i Östeuropa hade ytterligare några år innan angripits av dåvarande statsministern Olof Palme som återfall i det kalla krigets korstågsfararmentalitet. Vi som krävde frihet och demokrati demoniserade Sovjetunionen.

När de baltiska staterna diskuterade sin framtida inriktning avrådde svenska socialdemokrater dem både från marknadsekonomiska reformer och från det som senare blev ett Nato-medlemskap. De marknadsekonomiska reformerna riskerade, menade de, att underminera det välstånd som hade byggts upp, ett välstånd som människorna i Estland, Lettland och Litauen inte kunde se, men svenska socialdemokrater ansåg sig ana. Ingvar Carlsson hade 1988 – med de baltiska staterna som exempel – hävdat att planekonomierna var väl så skickade att skapa välstånd som de kapitalistiska.

Det var en åsikt som får anses falla inom ramen för socialistisk barnatro.

Sovjetunionens och planekonomiernas fall avslöjade en djup fattigdom och en förnedring i form av ständiga köer och brister på allt vad vardagen krävde. Nato borde de inte gå med i, sa man, eftersom det skulle provocera Ryssland. Genom medlemskap i försvarsalliansen skulle de underminera sin egen säkerhet. Det budskapet var direkt farligt att ge länder som genom hela sin moderna historia levt under hotet och förtrycket från Moskva.

När jag i veckan träffade företrädare för det estniska parlamentet och regeringen i Stockholm tänkte jag på detta. Estland är med i Nato. Ryssland gillade aldrig att Estland gick med i Nato. Putin anser i dag att det var fel att Nato utvidgades. Han hade velat att Estland var i samma position som Ukraina är i dag. Då skulle nämligen Estland vara i händerna på den ryska regimens godtycke. Det borde vara svårt för någon att hävda att Estland i dag vore tryggare utan Nato, eller att Östersjöregionen varit stabilare och Sverige säkrare om inte Nato funnits på andra sidan Östersjön, som ett skydd för små staters frihet.

Det blir därför väldigt konstigt när Sveriges utrikesminister Ann Linde i dag på fullt allvar hävdar att Sverige inte bör gå med i Nato eftersom Ryssland inte skulle gilla det. Det är anmärkningsvärt att hon låter ryska uttalanden vara bestämmande för svensk säkerhetspolitik. Men det faktum att Ryssland anser sig ha rätt att ha synpunkter på vår säkerhetspolitik är det främsta beviset för att vi måste ha en gemensam säkerhet med andra. De hot som Rysslands utrikesminister Lavrov upprepade gånger riktat mot Sverige om vi går med i Nato är just argument för att vi inte ska lyssna på Ryssland. Ryssland vill självklart inte att Sverige ska kunna stå starkt mot ryska hot. Ryssland vill inte att de baltiska staterna ska stå starka genom Natos säkerhet. Ryssland vill att andra länder ska ha samma säkerhetsnivå som Ukraina. Det är en dålig säkerhetspolitik för Sverige. Ett fritt och demokratiskt Estland är bevis på värdet av den säkerhet Nato ger.


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